Telangana forms the core of the Satavahana Dynasty (221BC-218 AD), Part of Chalukyan Dynasty in South India (between 5th and 11th century AD) and in the recent history, it formed the core of the Golconda State and Hyderabad State, ruled by Qutub Shahi Dynasty (1520-1687) and Nizam Dynasty (Asaf Jahi Dynasty) (1724-1948) until it was taken over by New Delhi in 1948. This region became independent and joined in the democratic India on 18th September 1948. Telangana constitutes 10 districts: Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, Warangal, Khammam, Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Nalgonda, and Mahabubnagar districts.
Mahabunagar is southern district of Hyderabad state under Nizam and bordered with River Krishna in the south and surrounded by the Nalgonda, Hyderabad, Kurnool, Raichur and Gulbarga districts. Mahabubnagar town is located at a distance of 96-km from Hyderabad.
This place was formerly known as "Rukmammapeta" and "Palamooru". The name was changed to Mahabubnagar on 4th December 1890, in honour of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan Asaf Jah VI, the Nizam of Hyderabad (1869-1911 AD). It has been the headquarters of the district since 1883 AD. The Mahabubnagar region was once known as Cholawadi or the land of the Cholas'. It is said that the famous Golconda diamonds including famous "KOHINOOR" diamond came from Mahabubnagar district.
It is very hard to understand the history of Palamoor as this region was always neglected by the rulers. And for most of the time, this region was ruled by very small regional rulers, Samasthans, Jamindars, Doras or land lords. More over, majority of Palamoor people always lived in poverty and slavery and Recording of History was never a priority. Nobody neither knows about their history nor they want to know it. Even today the people of this region struggle all their life for basic needs.
History of this region can be understood by the dynasties ruled this region and the historical maps of India below.
Palamoor Samasthans tell us the recent history of some parts of this region, which are still familiar to Palamoor people.
The origin of the Rajas of Hindu Samasthans in the Nizam's Dominion goes back to the time of the ancient Hindu Kingdom of Warangal. They were mostly Zamindars and military chiefs who established their authority over the surrounding territories. They were known as Paligars and their territories, Palayams. There were about sixteen Samasthans, which survived till Independence. Some of the important Samasthans in this region were Wanaparthi, Gadwal, Jetprole, Amarchinta, Palvancha, Gopalpet, Gurugunta, Kollapur and Anagundi. The Rajas of the Samasthans were progressive and managed the administration well.
1. THE GADWAL SAMASTHAN:This is situated between the rivers Tungabhadra and Krishna over an area of about 800 sq.miles. After the fall of the Warangal Andhra dynasty in the 14th century, Gadwal transferred its allegiance to the new Bahmani kingdom. According to the family history, Pedda Veera Reddy, Peddanna Bhupaludu, Sarga Reddy, Veera Reddy and Kumara Veera Reddy ruled Gadwal between 1553 and 1704.
During the reign of Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, the Martha's gained power in certain parts of the Deccan and started collecting 'chouth' or 25% of the revenue known, as 'Do-Amli' are the double government of the Nizam. Raja Sitaram Bhupal died in 1840 and was succeeded by his adopted son, Raja Sitaram Bhupal II. Nizam VII bestowed on him the title of "Maharaja" and he died in 1924 and was survived by his widow and two daughters.
2. WANAPARTHI SAMASTHAN: This is situated in Mahboobnagar district with an area of about 640 sq.miles. The Rajas of the Samasthans were closely associated with the QtubShahi kings. The early Rajas of Wanaparthi kept on army of 2000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. On 17th March 1843, the title of "Balwant" was conferred on Raja Rameshwar Rao as a mark of honour by Sikander Jah. For administrative purposes the Samasthan was divided into two taluqas namely "sugar" and "Kesampet" under to Tahsildars. The "Maharaja" died on 22nd November 1922. He was survived by two sons, Krishna Dev Rao and Ram Dev Rao. Recently this family represented in the Indian government after Independence.
3. THE SAMASTHAN OF JETPROLE: It was one of the most ancient and historic Samasthans in the dominion. It is said that Pillalamarri Bethala Reddy was the founder of not only the Jetprole family but also the families of the rajas of Bobbili in Ganjam District, Pittapore (now Pittapuram in Godavari District, Malleshwaram in Krishna District and Venkatagiri in Nellore District. The young Raja was given the ruling power by the Nizam when he ascended the 'Gaddi' he dropped his name of Navanita Krishna Yachandra and adopted that of Raja Venkat Laxman Rao Bahadur. The Raja died in 1929 leaving two daughters and his Rani.
4.THE AMARCHINTA SAMASTHAN: The Amarchinta Samasthan had an area of about 190 sq.miles in Mahabubnagar District. One of the descendants of the family, Raja Sriram Bhupal, died and was survived by his wife. She was accepted as the lawful successor to the Samasthan. Amarchinta Samasthan was noted for fine muslin.
5. KOLLAPUR SAMASTHAN: Kollapur smasthan with a large area spanning most of the nallamala forest area on the banks of river Krishna. There are traces of architectural tressures from 2nd century B.C. in this samasthan. Still you can see hundreds of ancient temples, which were built before 1500 years ago. Kollapur Samasthan played a considerable role in Nizam's era.
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